Networking

Articles about networking technologies and leading companies such as Cisco, Huawei, Microsoft…

Packet Forwarding in MPLS VPN Networks https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Packet Forwarding in MPLS VPN Networks

In MPLS VPN the packets cannot be forwarded as pure IP packets between sites because the P routers do not have VRF information. MPLS can solve this problem by labeling the packets. The P routers must then have only the correct forwarding information for the label to forward the packets. The most common way is to configure […]

Read More
Introduction to MPLS VPN https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Introduction to MPLS VPN

MPLS VPN, or MPLS Virtual Private Networks, is the most popular and widespread implementation of MPLS technology. Many service providers that have run MPLS VPN for years are now looking at interconnecting their network to the MPLS VPN networks of other service providers to improve the scalability and ease of operation of their network. This […]

Read More
MPLS Label Distribution https://tutorzine.com
Networking

MPLS Label Distribution Protocols

Labels have no global meaning across the network. For adjacent routers to agree which label to use for which prefix, they need some form of communication between them; otherwise, the routers do not know which outgoing label needs to match which incoming label. A label distribution protocol is needed. Generally, there are two ways to […]

Read More
MPLS labels https://tutorzine.com
Networking

MPLS Labels

This article helps you to understand how MPLS operates. By the time you finish this article, you will have a solid understanding of the building blocks of MPLS. Label switching indicates that the packets switched are no longer IPv4 packets, IPv6 packets, or even Layer 2 frames when switched, but they are labeled. The most […]

Read More
MPLS intorduction https://tutorzine.com
Networking

An Introduction to MPLS

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) has been around for several years. It is a popular networking technology that uses labels attached to packets to forward them through the network. This article starts with a definition of MPLS. It also provides a short overview of pre MPLS network solutions and the benefits of MPLS are listed. Definition […]

Read More
Service Provider VPN https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Peer-to-Peer VPN and Overlay VPN

A VPN is a network that emulates a private network over a common infrastructure. The private network requires all customer sites to be able to interconnect and be completely separate from other VPNs. The VPN usually belongs to one company and has several sites interconnected across the common service provider infrastructure. Service providers can deploy two major […]

Read More
MPLS VPN QoS design https://tutorzine.com
Networking

MPLS VPN QoS design

In addition to the dual role of quality of service (QoS) in the private WAN and branch networks (managing packet loss and jitter), the role of QoS over the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) virtual private network (VPN) may be expanded to include the following:  Shaping traffic to contracted service rates Performing hierarchical queuing and dropping […]

Read More
QoS Design https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Designing QoS for Campus networks

The primary role of quality of service (QoS) in rich-media campus networks is not to control latency or jitter (as it is in the wide-area network [WAN] or virtual private network [VPN]), but to manage packet loss. In today’s campus networks, endpoints are connecting to the network at Gigabit Ethernet (GE) speeds, and it takes […]

Read More
Bandwidth Reservation with RSVP https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Bandwidth Reservation with RSVP

The quality of service (QoS) tools including marking, policing, and shaping mechanisms, have primarily been differentiated services (DiffServ) tools. DiffServ mechanisms provide bandwidth guarantees (at various levels of rigidity), but none of them provides bandwidth reservations. Guaranteed implies that the bandwidth is there when needed, but it is not set aside (or reserved) for a specific application or flow. […]

Read More
QoS Congestion Management and Avoidance https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Congestion Management and Avoidance with QoS

Congestion management tools, including queuing tools, apply to interfaces that may experience congestion. Whenever packets enter a device faster than they can exit, the potential for congestion exists and queuing mechanisms apply. It is important to note that queuing tools are activated only when congestion exists. In the absence of congestion, packets are sent as […]

Read More