Networking

Articles about networking technologies and leading companies such as Cisco, Huawei, Microsoft…

Multicast Spars mode https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Multicast Sparse-Mode Routing Protocols

There are two sparse-mode routing protocols: Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) Core-Based Tree (CBT) This article covers the operation of PIM-SM. Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode PIM-SM works with a completely opposite strategy from that of PIM-DM, although the mechanics of the protocol are not exactly opposite. PIM-SM assumes that no hosts want […]

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Multicast Dense-Mode Routing Protocols https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Multicast Dense-Mode Routing Protocols

There are three dense-mode routing protocols: Protocol Independent Multicast Dense Mode (PIM-DM) Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF) This article covers the operation of PIM-DM in detail and provides an overview of DVMRP and MOSPF. Forming PIM Adjacencies Using PIM Hello Messages PIM routers form adjacencies with neighboring PIM […]

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Multicast Routing https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Multicast Routing

The introduction to multicast article discussed how a multicast router communicates with hosts and then decides whether to forward or stop the multicast traffic on a subnet. But how does a multicast router receive the group traffic? How is the multicast traffic forwarded from a source so that all the group users receive it? This chapter provides […]

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IGMP https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)

IGMP has evolved from the Host Membership Protocol. IGMP messages are sent in IP datagrams with IP protocol number 2, with the IP Time-to-Live (TTL) field set to 1. IGMP packets pass only over a LAN and are not forwarded by routers, because of their TTL field values. The two most important goals of IGMP are […]

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IP multicasting https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Introduction to IP Multicasting

Sending a message from a single source to selected multiple destinations across a Layer 3 network in one data stream is the basic definition of IP multicasting. If you want to send a message from one source to one destination, you could send a unicast message. If you want to send a message from one […]

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Virtual Private LAN Service https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Virtual Private LAN Service

Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) emulates a LAN segment across the MPLS backbone or virtual circuits. VPLS creates one or more LANs for each customer who is using the service from the service provider. Each LAN, of course, is completely separate from the other emulated LAN segments. The Need for VPLS VPLS is a service […]

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Fast ReRouting in MPLS https://tutorzine.com
Networking

Fast ReRouting in MPLS

An extra advantage of running MPLS traffic engineering is the possibility of Fast ReRouting (FRR). FRR allows you to reroute labeled traffic around a link or router that has become unavailable. The rerouting of traffic happens in less than 50 ms, which is fast even for standards of today. TE is usually enabled in the core network, […]

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RSVP TE https://tutorzine.com
Networking

MPLS RSVP-TE

RSVP is a signaling protocol for TE tunnels to ensure that link admissions happen at the interfaces of the Label Switched Routers (LSRs) that the TE tunnel crosses and for propagation of a label hop by hop that the traffic flowing on the TE tunnel can use. RSVP uses PATH and RESV messages to signal a path. […]

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MPLS TE Tunnel attributes https://tutorzine.com
Networking

MPLS TE Tunnel Attributes

The MPLS TE tunnel attributes are as follows: Tunnel destination Desired bandwidth Affinity Setup and holding priorities The tunnel destination is the MPLS TE router ID of the tail end LSR that the tunnel LSP should be routed to. The desired bandwidth of the TE tunnel is the bandwidth requirement of the TE tunnel. Affinity A link […]

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MPLS Traffic Engineering https://tutorzine.com
Networking

MPLS Traffic Engineering

Traffic engineering (TE), or the ability to steer traffic through a network, has been around for a while, but it was mainly present in ATM or Frame Relay networks. The role of TE is to get the traffic from edge to edge in the network in the most optimal way. Since early networks rely on […]

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